Immune System and Viruses

Immune System and Viruses

At the moment there is only one sure way against Covid-19 virus: to help our Immune System against the viral attack.

To defense against viruses it is necessary that our Immune System is efficient.

In the case of SARS-Cov-2 virus (Covid-19) our immune defenses are at the moment, together with the means of protection and social distancing, the only natural means against its aggression.

If the means of the Immune System are not efficient, we are easily attacked by the virus, particularly the people with chronic diseases or using drugs or with the Immune System subject to the natural aging.

First of all it is important to understand the big difference between viruses (e.g. Covid-19) and bacteria (e.g. Pneumococcus):

  • Viruses are incredibly small and visible only with the electron microscope. Viruses are not cells but only genetic material (DNA or RNA) covered by a protein envelope. All viruses are obligatory parasites, i.e. they do not reproduce independently but only by infecting living cells of host organisms: their DNA or RNA must enter in the host cell to replicate and release other infectious viral particles.
  • Bacteria are unicellunar organisms whose genetic patrimony is DNA, they replicate autonomously even outside the host organisms. In order to survive and replicate they are not obliged to use living cells but under favorable conditions they live and reproduce even in the external environment. Like viruses, bacteria are not visible, but given their large size they can be seen with a normal light microscope.

Virus and Bacteria cause diseases and infections, so the reaction of our means of defense is very important.

SARS-COV-2 (Covid-19) is a Coronavirus, the same family of SARS-COV-2 and seasonal influenza viruses . In fact, both cause similar symptoms, are transmitted with salivary droplets, contact, contaminated materials, and can cause serious respiratory diseases or infections without the appearance of symptoms, in the last case we speak of safe carriers. But there are also some differences: influenza viruses have an average incubation time of 1-4 days, while Covid-19 has an average incubation time of 5-15 days (not fully confirmed). In addition, while influenza viruses attack the children, Covid-19 attacks adults and more aggressively immunodepressed people, the aged and patients suffering from other diseases.

Coronavirus mutate very easily and frequently, but Covid-19 virus, although belonging to this family, seems to mutate less easily. The few mutations verified so far have probably made it more easily transmissible but also less lethal, given the many cases of positive people whitout symptoms or with no erious symptoms as the seasonal influenza.

The first line of defense against viruses, Covid-19 included, is the innate immune system present since the birth, which reacts quickly within few hours defending us with non-specific and temporary reaction against the attack of external agents. The second line of defense is the acquired immune system, whose elements are able to give an immunity more lasting in time against the specific agent.

There are therefore 2 lines of immune defense, but in reality it is a unique entity as they are strictly interdependent for all defense processes, so that one cannot exist and be active without the presence and activation of the other.

The immune defense reaction is a very complex mechanism involving specific cells as macrophages, lymphocytes, humoral factors (i.e. interferon and antibodies). The presence of IgM antibodies in the blood shows that the viral infection is in progress, while the presence of IgG antibodies shows that the infection is no active and the virus has been eliminated. But for Covid-19 this would not to be immunized from the virus, which can reinfect the same person previously infected.

For Covid-19 there are still several unknowns to be solved between doubts and controversial opinions of virologists: the Immunitary System is the only means of defense, therefore it's important to support it with guaranteed and qualitatively safe products containing principles are designed to promote its modulation, without causing effects that could be harmful to the body.






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